Tag Archives: Medication Safety

Building on success: Medication Safety

1 Feb

 

Meds Safety

Plans for the Medication Safety theme will extend the work programme carried out by the 2012-2017 NIHR Greater Manchester PSTRC on improving medication safety surveillance and interventions to reduce adverse drug events and make prescribing safer. This focus aligns directly with the recent World Health Organization’s (WHO) Third Global Patient Challenge “Medication Without Harm”.

The theme focuses on developing safety management systems and exploring how the prescribing, dispensing and administration of medicines within, and between, healthcare organisations can be further improved and made safer. Medicines are the most commonly used clinical intervention in healthcare, and errors can lead to significant patient harm and hospitalisation. A number of new interventions will be developed and tested, working with the Safety Informatics theme, to address these major safety challenges.

Specific projects will include the following:

  • Examining the impact of electronic audit and feedback on prescribing safety of general practice trainees
  • Enhancing and evaluating the Medication Safety Surveillance system using electronic health records to develop a library of prescribing safety indicators that can be used across the NHS
  • Building on the success of the Patient Safety Toolkit for general practice, work will continue with the Greater Manchester Community Pharmacy Patient Safety Collaborative to develop and test a patient safety and improvement toolkit for community pharmacies
  • Evaluating the impact of an electronic Refer-to-Pharmacy scheme, examining the extent to which this could improve medication safety on discharge from hospital.

Keep up to date with the work of the Medication Safety theme on its dedicated webpage.

NAPCRG 45th annual meeting

1 Feb

NAPCRG17BannerScreen

Sally Giles, Penny Lewis, Sarah Rodgers and Patient and Public Involvement (PPI) representative Antony Chuter presented a workshop at the recent Annual Meeting of the North American Primary Care Research Group (NAPCRG) in Montreal. The objectives of the workshop were to provide an overview of examples of current research into medication safety in primary care, discuss the challenges to medication safety and some of the tools that can be used in practice to improve medication safety.

Sarah highlighted the work of the ‘PINCER’ prescribing intervention and workshop participants worked through clinical scenarios using the PINCER indicators. Antony discussed his role as a PPI member in various medication safety research projects. This stimulated discussion around patient involvement in healthcare research, as this is a relatively new concept in North America.

Penny and Sally discussed patient involvement in medication safety and the development of the Manchester Patient Safety Framework (MaPSaF) with workshop participants engaging in discussions about how they currently involve patients in the prevention of safety incidents. The workshop was well attended by a mixture of primary care physicians, pharmacists and healthcare researchers and the topic fitted well with the patient-centred care theme of the conference.

Sally also presented her work on the primary care patient measure of safety (PC_PMOS) in a well-attended oral session. Sally’s work stimulated interest in the audience with US researchers hoping to carry out similar work in this area.

Drug Utilisation Research Group (Euro DURG)

1 Feb

Euro DURG logo
Stephen Campbell attended the European Drug Utilisation Research Group (Euro DURG) Conference 2017, in Glasgow in November 2017 to present at a workshop on the “Quality of quality indicators”. Healthcare and medication use are changing and the field of drug utilisation research is evolving in a digital world.

Drug utilisation is an eclectic scientific discipline that includes many methods for the “quantification, understanding and evaluation of the processes of prescribing, dispensing and consumption of medicines and for the testing of interventions to enhance the quality of these processes”.  It has overlap with the PSTRC focus on medication safety, transitional care for those with multimorbidity and safety informatics but is linked also to the broader field of pharmacoepidemiology (the study of the uses and effects of drugs in defined populations) and health outcomes research and health economics.

The overall aim is to improve the safe and efficient use of medicines in populations to shape health policy and clinical practice.  The economic and health consequences of inappropriate drug use are substantial and patients are the end users of medicines. Those in marginalised groups can experience more inconsistent outcomes due to medication. The conference emphasised the need for a partnership between researchers, policy-makers and patients.

Community Pharmacy Patient Safety Collaborative: Safety Initiatives

14 Jun

Chui Cheung photo

My name is Chui Cheung, working as a community pharmacist in Wigan, Lancashire.  I joined the NIHR Greater Manchester PSTRC Community Pharmacy Patient Safety Collaborative Study with the University of Manchester in November 2015.  Looking back, it was curiosity that led to my participation and I was worried how I would handle the research projects.  Nevertheless, the title of patient safety attracted me to find out more.

Patient safety is at the centre of our everyday tasks whether we are pharmacists, technicians, dispensers, medicine counter assistants or other members of the team. Whatever we do in the course of our work, we must do it safely.

At the start of the first year project, there were 8 to 10 pharmacists with a range of different working backgrounds and age groups.  We attended a full day session every 4 to 6 weeks at the University.  We were relieved to discuss openly and share our experience on patient safety.  The aim was to build a safety case using our working environment and team resources.  My project centred on dispensing safety: ‘Are we dispensing safely?’ and later on was refined to a quantitative safety incident claim.

We were introduced to specific tools: Hierarchial Task Analysis (HTA), Failure Mode and Effect Analysis (FMEA), System Human Error Reduction & Production Approach (SHERPA) to help our analysis of the safety profile. Our team broke down the complex dispensing tasks into smaller working steps or processes systematically. On a practical application, the Proactive Risk Monitoring (PRIMO) questionnaire was helpful to use as a team to identify various patient safety risk factors.  We then made risk assessments of the dispensing processes through the SHERPA and used Plan, Do, Study, Act (PDSA) cycles to evaluate improvement.

The whole team began to monitor and record near misses and dispensing incidents on a more conscious level than before and made voluntary changes towards an open, no-blame working culture. The goal of safer dispensing became a number one priority all the times.  The team’s brainstorming revealed many common triggers or events of ‘the vulnerable moment’ during the dispensing processes.  Several checking procedures were used as checker reminders.

The pooled data of errors showed high times of errors, typical error categories and even the common medicines.  Individually, we were able to find out when and how we perform best and made aware of the pitfalls.  We discovered that we were prone to errors particularly when we were ‘expected’ to have ultra-quick dispensing.  Through a member’s suggestion and our dispenser’s effort, we now display a shop poster giving a summary of ‘the way we prepare your medicines’ and give customers opportunities to read through the additional copies whenever there is a queue forming.  It works really well and the feedback is positive too.  The team and customers seem happier.

In year 2 of the project, we came across analytical tools (Faulty Tree Analysis, Bowtie diagram) to look at our safety claim.  We continued to expand our safety interests and used a more sophisticated reporting form called  ‘Incident Investigation Form’ which covers error description, the factors causing the error, the risk category, course of the event and improvement plans.   We have since modified the form for in-house use.  The bundle of safety data showed how we had been dispensing safely or otherwise.  As a result, we implemented a couple of measures (such as safety shelf reminders, Top 20 common error medicines list) to help us improve on a regular basis.  The data is also useful in staff appraisal.

Moreover, we felt fortunate to have the ready-made patient safety data for Quality Payment application.  My experience in the patient safety collaborative has been overwhelmingly good and positive.  I wouldn’t have known about these analytical methods and thought about the improvement plans if I hadn’t been part of the study group.

I recommend that any pharmacy team who is interested should come along for a taster session to see if this is right for you.

James Hind, member of the Community Pharmacy Patient Safety Collaborative, scoops Clinical Excellence Award at Superdrug’s annual Awards Ceremony

23 Feb

by Penny Lewis, Medication Safety theme

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James Hind, pharmacist and member of the Greater Manchester Community Pharmacy Patient Safety Collaborative, scooped the Clinical Excellence Award at Superdrug’s Annual Awards ceremony in Heathrow last week. The ceremony which aims to celebrate employees’ successes and achievements also marked 25 years of Superdrug Pharmacy. Other awards included Nurse of Year, Operational Excellence Award and Pharmacist of the Year (for which James was also nominated). James was awarded this honour after being recognised for his outstanding contribution to patient safety as part of his work with the Community Pharmacy Patient Safety Collaborative.

James, who has undergone training in risk assessment techniques and incident analysis as part of the collaborative, has shared his learning across the company via their online ‘Hub’. One of James’ innovations has been the design and production of bag labels to prompt both staff and patients to check their medications or ask any questions before leaving the pharmacy. James has conducted a survey to explore patients’ views of the label which has shown that the label is well received by patients and can, in some cases, prompt patients to take a more proactive approach to checking. James hopes to evaluate the impact of the label on patient safety incidents over the next few months.

James’s passion for improving patient safety engendered by his work with the collaborative has inspired James to work more closely with Superdrug’s Safety Office and also suggest improvements to their incident reporting system. James also noted that error reporting has increased threefold as a result of his participation in the collaborative and that his team are now far more reflective of their practice when things go wrong.

Well done James!

Read James Hind’s blog post on his involvement with the Community Pharmacy Patient Safety Collaborative here

Keep taking the tablets: part one

11 Apr

by Max Scott

Part six of the blog series “The desperate fight to be heard, and supported, when living with the invisible struggles of Multimorbidity”

Introduction to the blog series is here

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Regular (daily) medications:

VENTOLIN EVOHALER 10 micrograms (µg) as needed

SYMBICORT TURBOHALER 200µg, two puff morning and night

LEVOTHYROXINE TABLETS 50 µg, one every morning

LEVOTHYROXINE TABLETS 25µg, one every morning

OMEPRAZOLE TABLETS 20 milligrams (mg), one morning and night

TESTOSTERONE GEL 50 mg, one sachet each morning

FLUOXETINE 40mg, by way of two 20mg tablets every morning

PRAVASTATIN TABLETS, 20mg, one every night

GENOTROPHIN GROWTH HORMONE INJECTIONS, 5.3mg, one every night

PREGABALIN CAPSULES 300mg, one at night (for sleep disorders)

PREGABALIN CAPSULES 150mg, one in the morning (for meralgia paresthetica and back pain)

CLONAZEPAM TABLETS, 0.5mg, progressing to 1mg tablet and to be gradually raised to 2mg, at night

FOLIC ACID TABLETS 5mg, one at night


Other (sometimes taken) medicines:

MICOLETTE MICRO-ENEMAS, approx once a week

PARACETAMOL TABLETS 500mg, one-two when needed

CO CODAMOL TABLETS 8/500mg, one-two when needed

CODEINE TABLETS 30mg, one-two when needed

TRAMADOL TABLETS 50mg, rarely

DIAZEPAM TABLETS 5mg, when needed

ANUSOL SUPPOSITORIES, when needed (for haemorrhoids)

Various creams, intermittently, not regularly


So far in this series, I have concentrated on the many experiences and difficulties of living with multimorbidity, and somehow making sure that you are listened to, believed, and respected by medical professionals. By the very nature of the condition, professionals will be faced with a patient who is complex and will, more than likely, have conditions which are invisible to the eye, making trust that much more important.  I will continue on this theme in the future, but for this article I am going to focus more on an inevitable price to pay for having multimorbidity – and that is having to take multiple medications.

I am presently on thirteen regular daily medications for my varied health issues, and I have to take several more intermittently when the need arises. Let me explain some of the problems this can cause. Firstly, for me, the patient. Then (in part two) with the GPs and Consultants.

The Patient

The first of my present medications I ever took were my asthma inhalers, and I have been on these for longer than I can remember. Taking them became a way of life many years ago. Later, gastritis led to me taking Omeprazole. These were joined by the odd Diazepam here and there for anxiety, and sometimes I needed to use a nasal spray for rhinitis. All fairly straightforward at this stage. Then came my Pituitary surgery in 2005. Along with my life in general, that is when taking medications became more complex. I have included a list of my medications above but, to clarify, the ones I take as a result of my tumour removal/hypopituitarism are Levothyroxine 50 and 25 mg, Testosterone gel, and nightly injections of Genotrophin Growth Hormone. Hydrocortisone tablets have been needed on occasion, but this remains an ambiguity of extreme curiousness, which I shall raise again later in this blog. Such things as foot operations; pain from trapped nerves, osteoarthritis, slipped discs etc; and complex sleep disorders have all added to the list.

It’s not just about the amount of medications that I am now on, but the amount of tablets I have to take, when, and how. Remember, anyone who has seen any of my other blogs on here, I have short term memory loss, plus cognitive and executive disorders, which make it all the more easy to make mistakes. I have had to get various “Daily Pill Boxes”, example photo also included here, which should give you an idea of the sheer amount.

I mentioned a moment ago about making mistakes. Well, the drug companies do not make things any easier by manufacturing capsule shells, containing different medications, that look so similar. For example, two of my medications – one for my gastritis, the other an anticonvulsant medication also used for pain and sleep disorders – are both contained in a small, totally white capsule. How ridiculous, and potentially hazardous, is this?  This may be one thing when still in their original boxes (which, incidentally, chop and change their designs and colours so that you never build up a familiarity with them, often seemingly copying the packaging of other drug brands) but when separated into my “daily pill box” can become a nightmare…I have to put my strongest reading glasses on, to find some tiny dark lettering on one of them, and that is the only way I can tell these two, radically different, medications apart. So, basically, I am now on so many medications that just taking the tablets, at the right time, and making sure they are the right ones, has become an art-form all unto itself!

A final point in this part one, and it is a very strange one. One medication that I have not had to take following the Pituitary surgery has been Hydrocortisone, needed when there is a deficiency of ACHC, the hormone that stimulates the production of hydrocortisone by the Adrenal Gland. This hormone often does need to be replaced with patients who have had Pituitary surgery, and, as so much of the after-effects of my Pituitary surgery has been severe, life-changing chronic fatigue, it would have been logical to expect me to be deficient in this. But not so. That is until recently, when I had a series of blood samples taken later in the day than usual: after mid-day, when I am really beginning to flounder as my body and mind wind down towards my afternoon sleep.  THIS time, my hydrocortisone level was found to be very low, and an emergency phone call came that I must start taking hydrocortisone tablets IMMEDIATELY. Ahh, an answer to a problem, I thought. But no. A couple of weeks later, I had another series of tests, which astonishingly showed that I do NOT need to take Hydrocortisone after all. The last test was taken earlier in the morning than the other one. Relevant? Well, all I can say is that there are times like this when I begin to feel like a human guinea-pig!

NIHR Greater Manchester PSTRC Meet the Team – Jane Sarginson

18 Jan

The third in our NIHR Greater Manchester PSTRC ‘Meet the Team’ series introduces Jane Sarginson, Daphne Jackson Fellow in Medication Safety theme.

Jane Sarginson_Meet the Team

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